Taking control of new land, people and sources of wealth, Spaniards were forced to rethink the righteousness of their cause. The Reconquest was finished and there were now entirely new people groups to consider in the expansion of the Spanish Empire. The desire for wealth often eclipsed the moral treatment of the Indians, and many argued that poor treatment of other beings and the failure of evangelization reflected poorly on the personal spiritual state of the conquistadors. This fueled a growing trend of thought on the Iberian Peninsula– humanism. Different pieces of literature show that religious debate within the Catholic Church regarding the role of the individual that began during the early years of conquest. Perhaps the most significant debate in regards to the future of the western world after contact with the Americas occurred over the treatment and status of the indigenous population. The question of whether they would be treated as competent human beings and witnessed to or considered savages by an Aristotelian view and enslaved polarized the great thinkers during early sixteenth century conquest. Therefore, I believe the greatest impact of contact with the Americas on Spain was to spur on a crisis of faith that challenged political and religious orthodoxy in Early Modern Spain.